Installing Stager on Debian GNU/Linux (Sarge)
This document describes the installation of a Debian GNU/Linux (Sarge) server for the purpose of collecting and presenting NetFlow data. The NetFlow packets are collected using flow-tools. The data is processed and presented using Stager.
The Stager system reuqires information about routers such as names for interfaces. Several methods are available to aquire this information. Typically the router hostname is obtained by looking up ip address in DNS and interface descriptions are obtained via SNMP. This presents some challenges for our implementation, the reverse DNS for router ip addresses resolves to some meaningless generic name. The interface descriptions contain information unsuitable for netflow.
For the purpose of this document, we maintain router names and interface descriptions in manual text files.
A source for netflow packets is required. Typical Cisco IOS configuration would look like this, assuming 192.168.10.99 is the IP address of this server we are about to build.
ip flow-export version 5 ip flow-export destination 192.168.10.99 9997
Debian Install Install a basic Debian Sarge system. Do not select any particular packages during install. Needed packages will be installed as needed using apt-get.
Use the manual partitioning option to partition the drive.
/boot 200 MB (primary) swap 1000 MB (logical) / 1600 MB (logical) /tmp 2000 MB (logical) /usr 4400 MB (logical) /home 4800 MB (logical) /var 16000 MB (logical) /space fill
Essential Packages Install the following useful tools and packages.
apt-get install sysv-rc-conf apt-get install vim apt-get install rsync apt-get install ntp-simple apt-get install ntpdate apt-get install bzip2 apt-get install gawk apt-get install lynx apt-get install zip apt-get install unzip apt-get install postfix
Unwanted Services In order to keep this server secure only specifically needed services should be running. Use the sysv-rc-conf tool to disable lpd, nfs-common, portmap, ppp.
/etc/inetd.conf file and comment identd and other service to disable.
SMP Kernel Since this particular machine is a dual CPU server an SMP kernel image is quite useful. Use apt to find available kernel images and install the SMP kernel of your choice.
apt-cache search 'kernel-image.*smp' apt-get install kernel-image-2.6-686-smp
Reboot the server to run the SMP kernel. To see CPU utilization of each CPU use ‘top’ and type ‘1’
/etc/ntp.conf needs to be edited to obtain time from our local ntp server. A suitable
# /etc/ntp.conf, configuration for ntpd # File locations driftfile /var/lib/ntp/ntp.drift statsdir /var/log/ntpstats/ logfile /var/log/ntpd # The server we connect to server 192.168.10.78 restrict 192.168.10.78 nomodify # ... and use the local system clock as a reference if all else fails server 127.127.1.0 fudge 127.127.1.0 stratum 13 # By default noone is allowed to access this host restrict default ignore # Local users may interrogate the ntp server more closely. restrict 127.0.0.1 nomodify
/etc/default/ntpdate needs to be edited to set the time at system boot. Change the following line:
/etc/postfix/main.cf file contains all significant postfix configuration information. Just one line needs to be added to have postfix limited to only localhost and not listen on public interfaces:
inet_interfaces = localhost.localdomain
Stager System Installation
apache Install apache from Debian packages. Do not enable suexec.
apt-get install apache apt-get install apache-dev
postgresql Install postgresql from Debian packages.
apt-get install postgresql apt-get install postgresql-dev
perl Some additional perl modules are required. These are available as packages.
apt-get install libdbi-perl apt-get install libdbd-pg-perl apt-get install libnet-dns-perl apt-get install libsnmp-perl
php Some libraries are required to build php.
apt-get install libxml2-dev apt-get install libgd2 apt-get install libgd2-dev
The php apache module is installed from source. It appears that the Debian php package lags significantly behind official php releases and security fixes. To simplify building and rebuilding of php a build script is use. Obtain the latest php release and adjust the release number in build_php_4.sh.
mkdir /usr/local/src/php cd /usr/local/src/php wget http://ca3.php.net/get/php-4.4.0.tar.bz2/from/ca.php.net/mirror ./build_php_4.sh
/usr/local/lib/php.ini file is edited to include
/usr/local/lib/php in the include_path statment:
include_path = ".:/usr/local/lib/php"
/usr/lib/apache/1.3/500mod_php4.info file is created with the following content:
LoadModule php4_module /usr/lib/apache/1.3/libphp4.so
/etc/apache/httpd.conf file is edited. The lines that tell apache to parse certain extensions as php are uncommented. In particular these lines are to be uncommented:
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
Finally the apache configuration utility is run and the apache daemon restarted.
apache-modconf apache enable mod_php4 /etc/init.d/apache restart
pear The PEAR::DB library is required. Although php includes pear, this is not included.
pear install DB
jpgraph Obtain jpgraph and install.
cd /usr/local/src/php/ wget http://members.chello.se/jpgraph/jpgdownloads/jpgraph-1.19.tar.gz tar xzf jpgraph-1.19.tar.gz cp -r jpgraph-1.19/src /usr/local/lib/php/jpgraph
smarty Obtain smarty and install.
cd /usr/local/src/php/ wget http://smarty.php.net/do_download.php?download_file=Smarty-2.6.10.tar.gz tar xzf Smarty-2.6.10.tar.gz cp -r Smarty-2.6.10/libs /usr/local/lib/php/Smarty
flow-tools Obtain flow-tools and install.
mkdir /usr/local/src/flow-tools cd /usr/local/src/flow-tools wget ftp://ftp.eng.oar.net/pub/flow-tools/flow-tools-0.68.tar.gz tar xzf flow-tools-0.68.tar.gz cd flow-tools-0.68 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local make && make install
stager Create a new user for stager.
groupadd netflow useradd -g netflow -d /var/netflow netflow mkdir /var/netflow
mkdir /usr/local/src/stager cd /usr/local/src/stager wget http://software.uninett.no/stager/download/Stager-1.2.4.tar.gz tar xzf Stager-1.2.4.tar.gz cd Stager_1_2_4
Install the backend. Accept the presented password or choose a sensible new password.
./stager-install.pl --type=backend --prefix=/var/netflow --backends=netflow --backends=snmp
Fix permissions for some scripts installed by the stager backen installation.
chmod 755 /var/netflow/stager/bin/netflow_db_install.pl chmod 755 /var/netflow/stager/bin/opointmanage.pl chmod 755 /var/netflow/stager/bin/spoller.pl chmod 755 /var/netflow/stager/bin/topology2dot.pl
Create a temporary directory for stager.
mkdir /var/netflow/stager-tmp chown netflow.netflow /var/netflow/stager-tmp
Install the frontend. The stager owner is ‘netflow’ and the web group is ‘www-data’.
./stager-install.pl --type=frontend --prefix=/var/www --backends=netflow --backends=snmp
snmp Install snmp command line tools.
apt-get install snmp
Stager System Configuration
flow-tools Create a directory to store flow-tools raw data.
Install the flow-capture.init script as
/etc/init.d/flow-capture. Use the sysv-rc-conf tool to start flow-capture at the desired run levels.
Make sure the init file is executable.
chmod 755 /etc/init.d/flow-capture
postgresql Prepare a user for the stager postgres databases.
su postgres psql template1 create user netflow with password '<password>' createdb; q exit
/etc/postgresql/pg_hba.conf, add the following entry before any other entries.
local all netflow password host all netflow 127.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 password
/var/netflow/stager/etc/netflow.cfg configuration file. Edit the lines that specify the database user and passwords.
db_name=stager db_user=netflow db_pass=<password> db_host=localhost db_port=5432 tmp_path=/var/netflow/stager-tmp gri_text_cfg=routers.cfg
/var/netflow/stager/etc/snmp.cfg configuration file. Edit the lines that specify the database user and passwords.
db_name=stager_snmp db_user=netflow db_pass=<password> db_host=localhost db_port=5432 snmp_root=/var/netflow/raw/genplot
Run the database initialization script. You will be prompted for the netflow database user password multiple times.
/var/netflow/stager/bin/db_install.pl --clean --backend=netflow
The next step will update the database with router information. This step has to be done every time a new router is configured to send netflow data to stager. Edit
/var/netflow/stager/bin/getRouterInfo.sh to point to the location where flow-capture stores raw data.
/var/netflow/stager/etc/exporters.cfg file. It needs to contain name resolution information for all routers we receive netflow traffic from.
/var/netflow/stager/etc/routers.cfg file. It needs to contain information on all the router interfaces we receive netflow information about.
stager/bin/getRouterInfo.sh script. Running it first in trial mode (use the
--dry-run arg) is recommended. If all looks well run it for real to populate the database.
su - netflow ./stager/bin/getRouterInfo.sh --dry-run -v --plugin=text exit
If all looks well go for the real thing.
su - netflow ./stager/bin/getRouterInfo.sh --plugin=text exit
Manually update the time stamps. Note: replace the date with the current date.
psql -U netflow stager UPDATE obs_point_descr SET timestamp = '2005-10-21'; q
Create cron entries to populate the database with flow data. These processes should run as netflow user.
crontab -u netflow -e
Here is an example crontab.
# get-netflow, hourly 15 * * * * $HOME/stager/bin/get-netflow.pl # aggregate, daily 45 01 * * * $HOME/stager/bin/aggregate.pl --backend=netflow --interval '1 day' --timeformat 'YYYY-MM-DD' # aggregate, weekly 50 02 * * 1 $HOME/stager/bin/aggregate.pl --backend=netflow --interval '1 week' --timeformat 'YYYY-IW' --no-cap # aggregate, monthly 45 03 1 * * $HOME/stager/bin/aggregate.pl --backend=netflow --interval '1 mon' --timeformat 'YYYY-MM' # purge, daily 45 04 * * * $HOME/stager/bin/purge.pl --backend netflow
apache and php
The default web root for the Debian apache install is
/var/www. We installed the stager frontend in
/var/www/stager. This means stager is automatically availabe at the
/usr/local/lib/php/php.ini. Modify the include_path statement and adjust the memory limit
include_path = ".:/usr/local/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php/Smarty:/usr/local/lib/php/jpgraph" memory_limit = 20M
/var/www/stager/config/user.config.php configuration file. Of most importance is the database section.
'db' => array( 'my_db' => array( 'name' => 'My Database', 'phptype' => 'pgsql', 'database' => 'stager', 'username' => 'netflow', 'password' => '<password>', 'hostspec' => 'localhost', 'port' => '5432' ) ),
stager user access control
Ok, this needs work :) User access is controlled via sql commands. There is no web frontend for this. Each time
getRouterInfo.pl adds new descriptors the user access has to be reapplied (as I understand the instructions).